D. Josić, H. Schwinn, A. Štrancar, A. Podgornik, M. Barut, Y. P. Lim, M. Vodopivec
Journal of Chromatography A, 803 (1998) 61–71
Different ligands with high molecular masses are immobilized on compact, porous separation units and used for affinity chromatography. In subsequent experiments different enzymes are immobilized and used for converting substrates with low and high molecular masses. Disk or tube with immobilized concanavalin A (ConA) are used as model systems for lectin affinity chromatography. The enzyme glucose oxidase is used as a standard protein to test the ConA units. Subsequently glycoproteins from plasma membranes of rat liver are separated, using units with immobilized ConA. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which is used as a model protein in the experiments, is enriched about 40-fold in a single step, with a yield of over 90%. The results are only slightly better than those obtained with ConA when it is immobilized on bulk supports. The important improvement lies in the reduction of separation time to only 1 h. Experiments concerning the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII) are carried out on disks, combining anion-exchange chromatography and protein A affinity chromatography as a model for multidimensional chromatography. Both IgG (bound to the protein A disk) and accompanying proteins (bound to the anion-exchange disk) from mouse ascites fluid are retarded and eluted separately. With the immobilized enzymes invertase and glucose oxidase (GOX) the corresponding substrates with low molecular masses, saccharose and glucose, are converted. It is shown that the amount of immobilized enzyme and the concentration of the substrate are responsible for the extent of the conversion, whereas the flow-rates used in the experiments have no effect at all. The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX. Indirect immobilization with ConA as spacer proved to be the best alternative. With trypsin, immobilized on a disk, substrates with high molecular masses are digested in flow-through. For optimal digestion the proteins have to be denatured in the buffer for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis prior to application. In contrast to the conversion of substrates with low molecular masses, flow-rates play an important part in conversion of substrates with high molecular masses. With lower flow-rates a higher degree of digestion is achieved.
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